COVID reinfections, sneezing hamsters and huge methane emissions

People walk past a COVID-19 testing sign on the street, during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, New York, U.S.

Circumstances of coronavirus reinfection are rising world wide.Credit score: Carlo Allegri/Reuters

COVID reinfections surge throughout Omicron wave

Because the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 was first detected, the variety of folks reinfected with the coronavirus has been rising sharply — a pattern that was not noticed with earlier variants. Researchers say that Omicron might be driving the surge as a result of it could actually evade the physique’s immune defences.

In England, greater than 650,000 folks have most likely been contaminated twice; most of them have been reinfected previously two months, in line with information collected by the UK Well being Safety Company. The company considers an an infection a ‘attainable reinfection’ if it came about not less than three months after a earlier one. Earlier than mid-November, reinfections accounted for about 1% of reported circumstances of COVID-19, however the fee has now elevated to round 10%.

“The flexibility of Omicron to contaminate folks with both vaccine- or infection-derived immunity is a key a part of what made the current surge so massive,” says Marm Kilpatrick, an infectious-disease researcher on the College of California, Santa Cruz.

Measuring reinfection charges helps to evaluate “how infections may surge”, says Catherine Bennett, an epidemiologist at Deakin College in Melbourne, Australia.

‘Dangerously quick’ development in atmospheric methane

Methane concentrations within the environment raced previous 1,900 components per billion final 12 months, practically triple pre-industrial ranges, in line with information launched in January by the US Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Scientists say the grim milestone underscores the significance of a pledge made finally 12 months’s COP26 local weather summit to curb emissions of methane, a greenhouse gasoline not less than 28 occasions as potent as carbon dioxide.

The expansion of methane emissions slowed across the flip of the millennium, however started a fast and mysterious uptick round 2007. The spike has brought about many researchers to fret that international warming is making a suggestions mechanism that may trigger ever extra methane to be launched, making it even more durable to rein in rising temperatures.

A worrying trend: Line chart showing the rise in atmospheric methane levels since 1985.

Supply: NOAA

“Methane ranges are rising dangerously quick,” says Euan Nisbet, an Earth scientist at Royal Holloway, College of London, in Egham, UK.

Some researchers assume that a lot of the rise previously 15 years is likely to be as a consequence of microbial sources, fairly than the extraction of fossil fuels. The emissions are a serious menace to the world’s aim of limiting international warming to 1.5–2 °C over pre-industrial temperatures.

Workers in full PPE at the Little Boss pet store in Hong Kong

A suspected outbreak at a pet store in January led to a cull of hamsters in Hong Kong.Credit score: Chan Lengthy Hei/Bloomberg/Getty

Sneezing hamsters sparked Hong Kong COVID outbreak

Pet hamsters most likely carried the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 into Hong Kong and sparked a human COVID-19 outbreak, in line with a genomic evaluation of viral samples from the rodents. The analysis confirms earlier fears {that a} pet store was the supply of the outbreak, which had, by early February, contaminated about 50 folks and led to the culling of some 2,000 hamsters throughout town.

Hamsters are extremely prone to SARS-CoV-2 and so are a preferred mannequin for learning the virus. However the Hong Kong research — posted on-line as a preprint and but to be peer reviewed — is the primary to indicate that hamsters can change into contaminated outdoors the laboratory, and that they’ll move the virus on, each to different hamsters and to people (H.-L. Yen et al. Preprint at Social Science Analysis Community; 2022). Hamsters are solely the second animal recognized to have the ability to infect folks, after mink. In late 2020, small outbreaks of COVID-19 in folks in Denmark and the Netherlands have been linked to farmed mink, sparking panic and mass culls.

The newest research factors to the pet commerce as a route for viral unfold, says co-author Leo Poon, a virologist on the College of Hong Kong. However “to be truthful to the hamsters”, persons are nonetheless more likely to be contaminated by one another than by pets, he says.

Methane sensors could prevent the gas from getting into our atmosphere—and homes | NOVA

Tech + EngineeringTech & Engineering

Methane is a greenhouse fuel 86 instances as potent as carbon dioxide. What if we might see methane emissions in actual time?

Water flowing from a Weatherford, Texas resident’s effectively ignites when he places a flame to the effectively spigot. The U.S. Environmental Safety Company had proof a fuel firm’s drilling operation contaminated his consuming water with explosive methane, however withdrew its enforcement motion, leaving the household with no useable water provide, in response to a report obtained by The Related Press. Picture Credit score: Lm Otero/AP/Shutterstock

You’ve seen the photographs: floating islands of plastic within the ocean, marine life entangled in nets and features. Whether or not within the ocean or on land, plastic pollution—and their results—are sometimes seen.

However not all pollution are.

“What most individuals don’t notice is that there was air pollution for a very long time,” says Desiree Plata, an environmental engineer and chemist on the Massachusetts Institute of Know-how (MIT). “Most of it we simply can’t see.”

Enter methane, a colorless, odorless chemical that, like carbon dioxide and different greenhouse gases, contributes to local weather change by accumulating in our ambiance and trapping radiation from the solar. Methane is emitted into the air by many sources, together with melting permafrost, gassy cows, and oil and fuel drilling websites. And it’s about 86 instances stronger than carbon dioxide, in response to the Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change.

Methane is the primary ingredient in pure fuel, which powers 48% of properties in the USA. Industrial pure fuel is scented with odorants to make a possible fuel leak detectable, alerting a resident to close off their range or observe down the leak.

“I prefer to name methane ‘the elephant within the ambiance,’” Plata says. “It’s the fuel everybody must be speaking about, however few individuals learn about.”

However now, a group at MIT is producing sensors to permit individuals to “see” methane, and in the end observe down its sources and mitigate its dangerous results.

Sensor know-how: by chemical compounds, for chemical compounds

These methane sensors, developed by chemist Tim Swager and his group at MIT, range in measurement relying on how massive of an space a person want to monitor. The sensors might be massive, formed like a laptop computer briefcase for simple carrying. Or they might be small, in regards to the measurement of a sticker, and formed just like the flat chip in your bank card.

The sensors are cheap, low-power units that may detect methane emissions in nature and at industrial websites, Swager stated in an e-mail. The corporate C2Sense is working together with his group’s know-how, which might be available on the market inside a couple of years.

Although they’re not but licensed for industrial use, Swager’s methane sensors have the potential to be as extensively used because the carbon monoxide detectors we’ve in our properties. Methane is current in pure, industrial, and agricultural environments, and generally leaches into consuming water via the bottom within the type of tiny fuel bubbles, which means that anybody—from a farmer to an engineer to a home-owner—might use a sensor to get a greater concept of the chemical’s presence of their air or water.

All of Swager’s group’s sensors are powered by the identical factor: chemical components. Platinum and oxygen naturally react with methane, to allow them to be used within the sensors to detect methane in an setting, Swager explains.

Ice-rich permafrost thaws in Alaska. The carbon saved within the previously frozen floor is consumed by microbes, which launch methane fuel. Picture credit score: USGS

Right here’s how: The platinum within the sensor reacts with oxygen within the ambiance, bonding to create a chemical compound. This compound then reacts with any methane current within the surrounding setting. “Principally, you’re oxidizing the methane,” Swager says. This response between the platinum-oxygen compound and methane units off the sensor, which sends a notification to a specialised gadget (for an industrial-use sensor) or a mobile phone (for a personal-use sensor).

The sensor’s platinum and electrode sensing part “may be very tiny—and that implies that you can put it into a number of completely different constructions,” says Plata, who’s not concerned in Swager’s work. In contrast to another equipment that’s weighed down by the cumbersome important know-how inside it, C2Sense’s sensors depend on little or no to work, to allow them to be simply built-in into properties, barns, drilling websites, and different environments the place methane is current.

Fuel sensors that may detect risky natural compounds, together with methane, exist already. However they’re not tailor-made to detect methane alone, Swager stated in an e-mail, and require temperatures larger than 570 F to function. This makes them each pricey and doubtlessly harmful round excessive concentrations of methane, a flammable fuel.

Conversely, Swager’s sensors can function in ambient circumstances and have low energy necessities—they will run at submicrowatts—making them cheap to function. And in contrast to current sensors available on the market, which usually want a battery pack or wiring to work, Swager’s sensors could be powered wirelessly and skim by a smartphone.

Among the smaller prototype methane sensors are 0.08 inch (2mm) cubes, roughly as thick as a nickel. They will doubtlessly assist pinpoint leaks in properties or wells, attaching bodily to an space the place methane might spew from. The sensors can even connect to a mobile phone for on-the-go sensing, reporting the adjustments in air or water high quality proper to a “mobile-friendly sensor platform” on the telephone, Swager explains.

That stated, personal-use sensors could also be a methods off, Swager cautions. Presently, odorants added to methane-containing fuel function the primary indicator for fuel leaks in properties. Sadly, scent is just helpful should you’re current and capable of scent it. “Homes can blow up if there’s an excessive amount of pure fuel,” Swager says. When somebody is away from their dwelling or is unable to scent a leak, it’s more durable to guard in opposition to a attainable fuel fireplace—or worse, explosion.

One other attainable utility for the sensors, Swager says, is to check effectively water, which hundreds of thousands of individuals within the U.S. depend on. When methane is drilled underground, the fuel generally escapes from the pipe it’s being pumped into, travels via the porous earth, and rises from the bottom. “Within the technique of drilling down, you’ve got created one other pathway for the methane to achieve the floor. It might come up 100 yards from the effectively pad relying on the placement, even get into the groundwater,” Swager says. As a result of the fuel is taken into account unhazardous by a number of state departments of public well being, methane doesn’t have a Protected Ingesting Water Act most contaminant degree. (Though the U.S. Division of the Inside suggests a particular methane degree at which owners ought to vent their wells.)

Bigger sensors can sense transient leaks (leaks that begin and cease) over massive swaths of land. Meant to be used by engineers, park rangers, and different professionals, industrial-use sensors might determine methane leaks at pure fuel drilling websites, the place methane comes up from the earth; forests, the place raging fires can emit the chemical; or massive farms, the place methane-emitting livestock reside.

Cattle farming is the main reason for methane emissions within the U.S., with almost 2% of complete greenhouse fuel emissions yearly coming from the methane cows burp and fart (and the U.S. is the world’s largest producer of beef). Scientists have appeared for tactics to decrease methane emissions from cattle farming, going as far as to place masks on cows to catch their burps.

Addressing the elephant within the room

As methane and different greenhouse gases acquire within the ambiance, they “work as a blanket,” says Andra Garner, a local weather scientist at Rowan College in New Jersey. “Methane is a a lot thicker and heavier blanket than carbon dioxide and should you add too many blankets, we begin to get approach too heat,” she explains.

Past local weather change and fast security dangers of methane, the well being results of being uncovered to excessive ranges of methane over a chronic time period are additionally a priority, however haven’t been completely investigated. Communities which have handled massive quantities of methane leaking into their air—just like the residents of Belmont County, Ohio, the place one of many greatest methane leaks ever recorded within the U.S. occurred in 2018—have reported respiratory issues and dizziness after being uncovered to methane fuel. In-home methane sensors might notify residents of leaks when their noses can’t, similar to carbon monoxide and smoke detectors do.

“You in all probability hear headlines on a regular basis, ‘All over the place we search for plastics within the setting, we discover them,’” Plata says. “The identical is true of most industrial chemical compounds, however the issue is I can’t pull out my mobile phone and take an image of [them]. Tim’s sensors are serving to to shut that hole.”

With the ability to see the place methane comes from is step one to controlling its results on our planet. “Any time we’ve extra information, that’s higher; we get a greater deal with on the place these emissions are coming from,” Garner says. In any case, Plata says, “Getting chemical compounds out of the environmental system is an even bigger problem than attempting to maintain them from getting there within the first place.”

New state-of-the-art technology collects a unique time series from methane seeps in the Arctic — ScienceDaily

A brand new publication in Ocean Science hyperlinks cutting-edge know-how with developments in our understanding of the atmosphere and local weather, highlighting and constraining uncertainties in present methane estimates from methane seepage websites within the Arctic.

On the forefront of ocean observatory applied sciences is the Ok-Lander — an revolutionary ocean observatory outfitted with many ocean sensors, designed in collaboration between the water column group at CAGE led by Bénédicte Ferré and Kongsberg Maritime. This observatory was designed to observe methane launch from the seabed to the water column beneath difficult environments, offering invaluable info on temporal and spatial variability of pure methane launch that may doubtlessly attain the ambiance.

A brand new research revealed in Ocean Science performed by CAGE PhD candidate Knut Ola Dølven and co-authors presents time-series knowledge from two methane seep websites offshore western Svalbard, within the Arctic. These distinctive outcomes present excessive variability each on hourly and seasonal time-scales and describe the interconnectivity between methane seepage and the ocean.

“The size and placement are what makes these time-series distinctive, as they reply previous and lift new questions associated to this variability and the way we are able to higher constrain it in future emission estimates.” Says Knut Ola Dølven, Dølven, who performed this research as a part of his Ph.D. at CAGE.

Areas of intense methane seepage

In 2015 and 2016, two Ok-Lander observatories have been deployed over distinct intensive methane seepage websites west of Prins Karls Forland, the place 1000’s of gasoline bubble streams originating from the seafloor have been noticed.

Regardless of the information that methane seep websites doubtless expertise excessive temporal and spatial variability, our understanding of the quantity, distribution, and launch of methane within the Arctic Ocean has largely relied on research that have been undertaken within the late spring to early autumn as a result of higher ice and climate circumstances. Till now.

Long run, steady monitoring of methane launch

Utilizing knowledge from the Ok-Lander, Dølven and co-authors processed a singular lengthy time-series that spanned 10 months, measuring methane, carbon dioxide and bodily parameters at every website. These measurements offered vital insights into the short-term and differences due to the season of methane emissions and concentrations.

“It was fascinating to watch that, regardless of the very excessive short-term variability in methane launch, the supply of methane emission appeared to be comparatively unchanged all through the 10-month deployment. This has robust implications on future interpretations of methane focus in seep areas.” Says Dølven.

There may be additionally elevated potential for methane launch to the ambiance throughout the fall and winter, if seepage persists, as a result of weaker water column stratification (elevated mixing of the layers within the ocean).

Whereas seabed seepage is taken into account a minor pure supply of atmospheric methane, there are giant uncertainties associated to the present and predicted emission estimates. Dølven and co-authors have been, due to this fact, capable of spotlight and constrain uncertainties associated to variability in methane stock estimates from seabed methane seepage.

Ok-Lander know-how in future analysis functions

This work highlighted the profitable cooperation between maritime trade and analysis groups, offering innovative know-how for monitoring methane to assist clarify questions on oceanic greenhouse gasoline emissions. That is the primary long run knowledge collection offering distinctive multi-sensor knowledge on methane launch and different ocean bodily and chemical circumstances within the Arctic.

“This infrastructure will play a significant position in understanding components controlling methane emissions not solely in Arctic, as highlighted on this research, however in different areas worldwide as properly. Methane seepage knowledge together with different parameters measured by the Ok-Lander will assist in estimating current and future world methane budgets in our oceans” says Bénédicte Ferré, the staff chief for WP4 ‘Gasoline within the Water Column’ and EMAN7, and the liable for the event, acquisition and knowledge evaluation associated to the Ok-Lander.