How the gut microbiome processes seaweed — ScienceDaily


The subsequent time you get a yearning for sushi rolls, you might really feel a renewed appreciation for the ocean — it is to thank not solely to your fish and seaweed wrapper, however, as a brand new Michigan Drugs examine suggests, for the micro organism in your intestine that digest seaweed.

The ocean is without doubt one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on the planet, a lot of it locked inside seaweed. Marine micro organism play a vital position within the carbon cycle by breaking down seaweed. Slightly over a decade in the past, researchers discovered the genes that allow ocean micro organism to degrade the complicated carbohydrate often known as porphyran, present in cold-water seaweed, in a microbiome pattern from a Japanese grownup.

The brand new examine, led by Nicolas Pudlo, Ph.D., Gabriel Vasconcelos Pereira, Ph.D., and Eric Martens, Ph.D., of the U-M Medical Faculty, has discovered that these genes of oceanic origin are extra widespread than beforehand acknowledged, coming into the human intestine microbiome via a course of often known as lateral gene-transfer.

Throughout digestion, intestine micro organism in people break down dietary fiber, or polysaccharides, present in fruits, greens, and grains. Nevertheless, the polysaccharides present in seaweed have completely different chemical constructions than land-sourced meals. Someway, genes from the ocean-dwelling Bacteroidetes — a genus of micro organism that could be a key participant within the microbiome — discovered their approach into the human intestine.

“Whether or not they got here straight from an oceanic bacterium somebody simply occurred to eat or via a extra complicated path into the human intestine remains to be a thriller,” mentioned Martens, a professor within the Division of Microbiology and Immunology.

To look at simply how intensive the seaweed gene clusters are in intestine Bacteroidetes, the group turned to an uncommon supply: stool samples from U-M undergraduate college students.

“We obtained the samples in small glass tubes and did all of our culturing throughout the lab’s anaerobic chamber,” commented Ahmed Ali, one of many pupil researchers on the examine. “I keep in mind working within the chamber was sizzling and considerably tough, however this was positively offset by the truth that we didn’t need to ‘odor the scientific course of’ at work,” he quipped.

They then analyzed the micro organism’s capability to degrade a number of seaweed-derived polysaccharides, together with porphyran, laminarin, alginate and carrageenan.

The group discovered that genes for processing laminarin had been broadly represented within the samples, probably linked to the associated capability to course of beta-glucans, sugars additionally present in oats and complete grains. But, the opposite seaweed polysaccharides had been utilized by fewer bacterial species and current in fewer samples.

“The genes to course of agarose and porphyran, two of the extra generally consumed seaweeds in Southeast Asia, tended to be enriched within the folks residing there,” mentioned Martens. Taking a better have a look at the geographic distribution of the gene clusters, the group referenced genomic surveys from samples taken from greater than 2000 folks in Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Europe.

The genes for degrading porphyran had been certainly enriched in samples from China and Japan. Genes for processing carrageenan, consumed since 400 B.C in China, and now extensively used as a meals additive in all the pieces from oat milk to toddler components in america, had been additionally enriched in samples from China, Japan and North America.

Including additional intrigue to the evolution of seaweed digestion, the group fortuitously found that the micro organism Firmicutes, that are much more prevalent within the human intestine than Bacteroidetes, even have picked up the genetic capability to develop on seaweed polysaccharides.

“Firmicutes are identified to stay in fish intestines and the closest ancestors of the genes that seem to have jumped into human intestine Firmicutes had been ones present in fish,” mentioned Martens.

The examine, notes the group, opens new questions concerning the complicated interaction between food regimen and the variation of the human intestine microbiome in populations all over the world.

Extra authors on the paper embrace Jaagni Parnami, Melissa Cid, Stephanie Markert, Jeffrey P. Tingley, Frank Unfried, Austin Campbell, Karthik Urs, Yao Xiao, Ryan Adams, Duña Martin, David N. Bolam, Dörte Becher, Thomas M. Schmidt, Wade Abbott, Thomas Schweder and Jan Hendrik Hehemann.

Healthy gut microbiome improves success of cancer treatment — ScienceDaily


The biggest research up to now has confirmed the hyperlink between the intestine microbiome and the response to most cancers immunotherapy remedy for melanoma.

The research is printed right this moment in Nature Drugs and co-ordinated by King’s School London, CIBIO Division of the College of Trento and European Institute of Oncology in Italy, College of Groningen within the Netherlands and funded by the Seerave Basis.

Dr Karla Lee, medical researcher at King’s School London and first creator of the research, stated: “Preliminary research on a restricted variety of sufferers have urged that the intestine microbiome, as an immune system regulator, performs a job within the response of every affected person to most cancers immunotherapy, and significantly within the case of melanoma. This new research may have a significant influence on oncology and drugs normally.”

The microbiome, the set of microorganisms that stay within the intestines, could be altered via dietary adjustments, subsequent era probiotics and faecal transplantation. This variation is in flip modifying the microbiome’s motion on the immune system. Understanding the traits of the microbiome can allow treating clinicians to change a affected person’s microbiome accordingly earlier than beginning therapy. Lower than 50% of sufferers reply positively to immunotherapy for melanoma so discovering methods to extend the variety of optimistic responders is essential.

The research put collectively the biggest cohort of sufferers with melanoma and samples of their intestine microbiome from 5 medical centres within the UK, the Netherland and Spain. Researchers carried out a large-scale metagenomic research — sequencing of the intestine microbiome — to research whether or not there’s an affiliation between the composition and performance of the intestine microbiome and response to immunotherapy.

Outcomes confirmed a fancy affiliation because it entails totally different bacterial species in several affected person cohorts. The presence of three forms of micro organism (Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Roseburia spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila) appear to be related to a greater immune response. A further discovering was that the microbiome itself is strongly influenced by elements together with affected person structure, use of proton pump inhibitors and food regimen that ought to be thought of in future longitudinal research.

Co-author Professor Tim Spector from King’s School London stated: “This research reveals the probabilities of survival primarily based on wholesome microbes practically doubled between subgroups. The final word aim is to establish which particular options of the microbiome are immediately influencing the medical advantages of immunotherapy to take advantage of these options in new personalised approaches to assist most cancers immunotherapy. However within the meantime, this research highlights the potential influence of excellent food regimen and intestine well being on probabilities of survival in sufferers present process immunotherapy.”

Co-author Professor Nicola Segata from College of Trento stated: “Our research reveals that finding out the microbiome is necessary to enhance and personalise immunotherapy therapies for melanoma. Nevertheless, it additionally means that due to the person-to-person variability of the intestine microbiome, even bigger research should be carried out to know the precise intestine microbial options which are extra prone to result in a optimistic response to immunotherapy.”

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Supplies offered by King’s School London. Word: Content material could also be edited for fashion and size.

The lung microbiome regulates brain autoimmunity


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