Whole-genome sequencing reveals new secrets about killer fungus — ScienceDaily


New analysis from the College of Exeter reviews the biggest ever whole-genome sequencing venture for the possibly deadly yeast an infection Candida glabrata from hospitals throughout Scotland.

Candida glabrata is a kind of yeast that may trigger illness in people. It mostly impacts the urinary tract, genitals, mouth, and the bloodstream. If it’s not caught, these infections can turn out to be lethal. It additionally has a really excessive resistance to sure antifungal medication, so understanding why resistance happens is vital to understanding easy methods to deal with it successfully.

The brand new analysis, revealed in Genetics, used samples from eight hospitals in Scotland to sequence the genome of Candida glabrata. This led to the invention of quite a lot of new data on the species. This contains data on how they reproduce and the genetic range. It additionally discovered that genes that make it extra prone to be infectious have a bonus for survival, and the drug-resistance genes usually evolve inside sufferers.

The invention of this data offers scientists a bonus in relation to treating candida glabrata. A greater understanding of the genes concerned permits researchers to focus their work in ways in which weren’t potential earlier than. It additionally helps support understanding on how the pathogen spreads, which is essential to figuring out infections.

Dr Rhys Farrer, one of many Principal Investigators on the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology on the College of Exeter, stated: “Our examine sheds new gentle on the genetic range of Candida glabrata. We’ve got demonstrated that this lethal human fungal pathogen is being unfold between continents, most likely by people, and recombining to type new populations, which is probably going contributing to its excessive virulence and rising drug resistance.”

The analysis was funded by the Medical Analysis Council and the Wellcome Belief.

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After Paris Attacks, CIA Head Reignites Surveillance Debate | United States of Secrets | FRONTLINE


Simply three days after the bloody assault in Paris, America’s prime intelligence official took to a podium and instructed that current leaks about categorised surveillance applications have been partially accountable.

“Unauthorized disclosures” have led to “numerous hand-wringing over the federal government’s position within the effort to attempt to uncover these terrorists,” mentioned CIA director John Brennan in remarks on Monday. “There have been some coverage and authorized and different actions … that make our potential collectively, internationally, to search out these terrorists rather more difficult, and I do hope that that is going to be a get up name.”

Brennan didn’t point out Edward Snowden by title. However the paperwork the previous NSA contractor leaked to journalists in 2013 revealed  simply how a lot knowledge the U.S. collects on foreigners and People alike.  He uncovered two categorised applications — Part 215 of the Patriot Act, which collects phone data in bulk, and Part 702, which authorizes spying on non-U.S. residents.

U.S. officers have mentioned that the disclosures have endangered nationwide safety by encouraging terrorists to make use of encrypted messaging programs and software program to hide their identities on-line, a degree Brennan underscored on Monday.

“There was a major enhance within the operational safety of a variety of these operatives and the terrorist networks as they’ve gone to high school on what it’s they should do to maintain their actions hid from the authorities,” Brennan mentioned in remarks on the Middle for Strategic and Worldwide Research. “As I discussed, there are numerous technological capabilities which are accessible proper now that make it exceptionally troublesome each technically in addition to legally for intelligence safety companies to have the perception they should uncover it.”

Brennan’s remarks reignited a long-running debate on the steadiness between civil liberties and nationwide safety, which gained momentum worldwide after Snowden revealed the lengthy attain of U.S. surveillance.

However privateness advocates be aware that terrorists have been conscious lengthy earlier than Snowden that the U.S. authorities has the flexibility to trace them. And there’s no indication up to now that the Paris assaults, which killed 129, may have been stopped by different methods, safety specialists mentioned. The Islamic State has claimed accountability, nevertheless it’s nonetheless not but recognized how the assaults have been deliberate and the way they could have been disrupted.

“I don’t assume it’s honest,” mentioned Steven Aftergood, director of the Federation of American Scientists Mission on Authorities Secrecy, of Brennan’s remarks. “It’s untimely at finest and it might be fully incorrect. And it’s not clear to what extent surveillance would or may or did make a distinction.” He added: “It’s not as if folks wanted Snowden with the intention to understand that governments, together with the U.S., collect intelligence or try to anticipate and defeat assaults on their nation. That’s a given.”

Since Snowden’s disclosures in 2013, the U.S. authorities has defended the applications, arguing that they’ve disrupted terror assaults. A presidential evaluate board set as much as consider each applications discovered privateness issues with every program, and examined their effectiveness. It famous that Part 702, which permits the gathering of web and cellphone knowledge for non-U.S. individuals, “has instantly enabled the thwarting of particular terrorist assaults, aimed toward the USA and at different nations.”

One of many incidents officers have pointed to is the 2008 assaults in Mumbai, wherein gunmen killed 166 folks. A report by FRONTLINE and ProPublica discovered that regardless that intelligence officers have been in a position to monitor a key plotter within the assault, the data wasn’t carefully analyzed in time to forestall the bloodbath.

The identical board discovered “minimal worth” in Part 215, this system that gathers bulk phone knowledge on U.S. residents. “Now we have not recognized a single occasion involving a menace to the USA wherein this system made a concrete distinction within the end result of a counterterrorism investigation,” it mentioned. “Furthermore, we’re conscious of no occasion wherein this system instantly contributed to the invention of a beforehand unknown terrorist plot or the disruption of a terrorist assault.”

Within the meantime, the disclosures have led to new oversight and a few adjustments to the applications. In two weeks, a provision of the brand new USA Freedom Act takes impact that forestalls the NSA from amassing and storing American cellphone knowledge in bulk.

That knowledge will nonetheless be retained, however now will probably be saved by the cellphone firms as a substitute, shared with the federal government solely upon authorization. Information for non-U.S. residents will nonetheless be collected by the federal government.

A girl walks previous a banner displayed in help of former US spy Edward Snowden in Hong Kong on June 18, 2013. (Philippe Lopez/AFP/Getty Photos)