Knowledge about others reduces one’s own sense of anonymity


  • Krackhardt, D. & Kilduff, M. Whether or not shut or far: social distance results on perceived stability in friendship networks. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 76, 770–782 (1999).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, J. A. In Theories of Cognitive Consistency (eds Abelson, R. P. et al.) 544–550 (Rand McNally, 1968).

  • Heider, F. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (Wiley, 1958).

  • DeSoto, C. B. Studying a social construction. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 60, 417–421 (1960).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, L. C. Filling within the blanks: a concept of cognitive classes and the construction of social affiliation. Soc. Psychol. Q. 55, 118–127 (1992).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rand, D. G. et al. Social heuristics form intuitive cooperation. Nat. Commun. 5, 3677 (2014).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Holoien, D. S., Bergsieker, H. B., Shelton, J. N. & Alegre, J. M. Do you actually perceive? Attaining accuracy in interracial relationships. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 108, 76–92 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Epley, N., Keysar, B., Van Boven, L. & Gilovich, T. Perspective taking as selfish anchoring and adjustment. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 87, 327–339 (2004).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Nickerson, R. S. How we all know—and typically misjudge—what others know: imputing one’s personal information to others. Psychol. Bull. 125, 737–759 (1999).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilovich, T., Savitsky, Ok. & Medvec, V. H. The phantasm of transparency: biased assessments of others’ means to learn one’s emotional states. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 75, 332–346 (1998).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilovich, T. & Savitsky, Ok. The highlight impact and the phantasm of transparency: selfish assessments of how we’re seen by others. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 8, 165–168 (1999).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Milgram, S. The expertise of residing in cities. Science 167, 1461–1468 (1970).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Fraser, S. C., Beaman, A. L. & Kelem, R. T. Results of deindividuation variables on stealing amongst Halloween trick-or-treaters. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 33, 178–183 (1976).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhong, C., Bohns, V. Ok. & Gino, F. Good lamps are the very best police: darkness will increase dishonesty and self-interested conduct. Psychol. Sci. 21, 311–314 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Andreoni, J. & Petrie, R. Public items experiments with out confidentiality: a glimpse into fund-raising. J. Public Econ. 88, 1605–1623 (2004).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoeli, E., Hoffman, M., Rand, D. & Nowak, M. Powering up with oblique reciprocity in a large-scale discipline experiment. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 10424–10429 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ernest-Jones, M., Nettle, D. & Bateson, M. Results of eye photos on on a regular basis cooperative conduct: a discipline experiment. Evol. Hum. Behav. 32, 172–178 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pronin, E., Kruger, J., Savitsky, Ok. & Ross, L. You don’t know me, however I do know you: the phantasm of uneven perception. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81, 639–656 (2001).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakens, D. Equivalence exams: a sensible primer for t exams, correlations, and meta-analyses. Soc. Psychol. Pers. Sci. 8, 355–362 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Preacher, Ok. J., Rucker, D. D. & Hayes, A. F. Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: concept, strategies, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behav. Res. 42, 185–227 (2007).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Parks, R. B., Mastrofski, S. D., DeJong, C. & Grey, M. Ok. How officers spend their time with the group. Justice Q. 16, 483–518 (1999).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ba, B. A., Knox, D., Mummolo, J. & Rivera, R. The function of officer race and gender in police-civilian interactions in Chicago. Science 371, 696–702 (2021).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Fryer, R. G. An empirical evaluation of racial variations in police use of pressure. J. Pol. Econ. 127, 1210–1261 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Voigt, R. et al. Language from police physique digital camera footage exhibits racial disparities in officer respect. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 6521–6526 (2017).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Braga, A. A., Papachristos, A. V. & Hureau, D. M. The results of scorching spots policing on crime: an up to date systematic evaluation and meta-analysis. Justice Q. 31, 633–663 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Nationwide Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medication. Proactive Policing: Results on Crime and Communities (The Nationwide Academies Press, 2018).

  • Nationwide Analysis Council. Equity and Effectiveness in Policing: The Proof (The Nationwide Academies Press, 2004).

  • Sherman, L. W. & Eck, J. in Proof Primarily based Crime Prevention (eds Sherman, L. W. et al.) 295–329 (Routledge, 2002).

  • Peyton, Ok., Sierra-Arévalo, M. & Rand, D. G. A discipline experiment on group policing and police legitimacy. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 19894–19898 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendola, Ok. L. & Alpert, G. P. Are you able to construct a greater cop? Experimental proof on supervision, coaching, and policing locally. Criminol. Public Coverage 17, 41–87 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sunshine, J. & Tyler, T. The function of procedural justice and legitimacy in shaping public help for policing. Legislation Soc. Rev. 37, 513–548 (2003).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalfin, C., Hansen, B., Weisburst, E. Ok. & Williams, M. C. Police pressure measurement and civilian race. Am. Econ. Rev. Insights (within the press).

  • Belloni, A., Chernozhukov, V. & Hansen, C. Excessive-dimensional strategies and inference on structural and therapy results. J. Econ. Perspect. 28, 29–50 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *