The virtually 11 cm excessive figurine from Willendorf is likely one of the most necessary examples of early artwork in Europe. It’s fabricated from a rock known as “oolite” which isn’t present in or round Willendorf. A analysis group led by the anthropologist Gerhard Weber from the College of Vienna and the 2 geologists Alexander Lukeneder and Mathias Harzhauser in addition to the prehistorian Walpurga Antl-Weiser from the Pure Historical past Museum Vienna have now discovered with the assistance of high-resolution tomographic photographs that the fabric from which the Venus was carved seemingly comes from northern Italy. This sheds new gentle on the exceptional mobility of the primary trendy people south and north of the Alps. The outcomes at the moment seem in Scientific Reviews.
The Venus von Willendorf will not be solely particular by way of its design, but in addition by way of its materials. Whereas different Venus figures are normally fabricated from ivory or bone, generally additionally of various stones, oolite was used for the Decrease Austrian Venus, which is exclusive for such cult objects. The figurine discovered within the Wachau in 1908 and on show within the Pure Historical past Museum in Vienna has to this point solely been examined from the surface. Now, greater than a 100 years later, anthropologist Gerhard Weber from the College of Vienna has used a brand new methodology to look at its inside: micro-computed tomography. Throughout a number of passes, the scientists obtained photographs with a decision of as much as 11.5 micrometres — a high quality that’s in any other case solely seen below a microscope. The primary perception gained is: “Venus doesn’t look uniform in any respect on the within. A particular property that could possibly be used to find out its origin,” says the anthropologist.
Together with the 2 geologists Alexander Lukeneder and Mathias Harzhauser from the Pure Historical past Museum in Vienna, who had beforehand labored with oolites, the group procured comparative samples from Austria and Europe and evaluated them. A posh challenge: Rock samples from France to japanese Ukraine, from Germany to Sicily had been obtained, sawn up and examined below a microscope. The group was supported by the state of Decrease Austria, which supplied funds for the time-consuming analyses.
The within additionally provides details about the surface
The tomographic knowledge from the Venus confirmed that the sediments had been deposited within the rocks in numerous densities and sizes. In between there have been additionally small remnants of shells and 6 very dense, bigger grains, so-called limonites. The latter explains the beforehand mysterious hemispherical cavities on the floor of Venus with the identical diameter: “The onerous limonites in all probability broke out when the creator of the Venus was carving it,” explains Weber: “Within the case of the Venus navel, he then apparently made it a advantage out of necessity.”
One other discovering: The Venus oolite is porous as a result of the cores of the tens of millions of globules (ooides) of which it’s comprised had dissolved. It is a nice rationalization for why the resourceful sculptor selected this materials 30,000 years in the past: It’s a lot simpler to work with. The scientists additionally recognized a tiny shell remnant, simply 2.5 millimetres lengthy, and dated it to the Jurassic interval. This dominated out all different potential deposits of the rock from the a lot later Miocene geological period, resembling these within the close by Vienna Basin.
A good distance for that point
The analysis group additionally analysed the grain sizes of the opposite samples. Tons of, generally even hundreds of grains had been marked and measured with picture processing packages and even manually. Not one of the samples inside a 200-kilometer radius of Willendorf even remotely matched. The evaluation lastly confirmed that the samples from the Venus had been statistically indistinguishable from samples from a location in northern Italy close to Lake Garda. That is exceptional as a result of it implies that the Venus (or at the least its materials) began a journey from south of the Alps to the Danube north of the Alps.
“Individuals within the Gravettian — the device tradition of the time — regarded for and inhabited beneficial places. When the local weather or the prey state of affairs modified, they moved on, ideally alongside rivers,” explains Gerhard Weber. Such a journey may have taken generations.
One of many two doable routes from the south to the north would lead across the Alps and into the Pannonian Plain and was described in simulations by different researchers just a few years in the past. The opposite technique to get from Lake Garda to the Wachau can be through the Alps. Whether or not this was doable greater than 30,000 years in the past is unclear as a result of local weather deterioration that started at the moment. This may be a relatively unbelievable variant if there had already been steady glaciers at the moment. Nevertheless, the 730 km lengthy path alongside the Etsch, the Inn and the Danube had all the time been beneath 1,000 meters above sea stage, aside from 35 kilometres at Lake Reschen.
Attainable, however much less seemingly, connection to japanese Ukraine
The statistics clearly level to northern Italy because the origin of the Venus oolite. However, there may be one other fascinating place for the origin of the rock. It’s in japanese Ukraine, greater than 1,600 kilometres linear distance from Willendorf. The samples there don’t match as clearly as these from Italy, however higher than all the remainder of the pattern. An fascinating connection right here: Venus figures had been present in close by southern Russia, that are considerably youthful, however look similar to the Venus present in Austria. Genetic outcomes additionally present that folks in Central and Jap Europe had been linked to at least one one other at the moment.
The thrilling story of the Decrease Austrian Venus could possibly be continued. Only some systematic research have to this point handled the existence of early people on this timeframe within the Alpine area, and with their mobility. The well-known “Ötzi,” for instance, solely comes into play a lot later, specifically 5,300 years in the past. “We wish to use these Venus outcomes and our new Vienna analysis community “Human Evolution and Archaeological Sciences,” in cooperation with anthropology, archaeology and different disciplines, to additional make clear early historical past within the Alpine area,” concludes Weber.