The physics of fire ant rafts could help engineers design swarming robots — ScienceDaily


Noah rode out his flood in an ark. Winnie-the-Pooh had an upside-down umbrella. Hearth ants (Solenopsis invicta), in the meantime, type floating rafts made up of hundreds and even a whole bunch of hundreds of particular person bugs.

A brand new examine by engineers on the College of Colorado Boulder lays out the straightforward physics-based guidelines that govern how these ant rafts morph over time: shrinking, increasing or rising lengthy protrusions like an elephant’s trunk. The crew’s findings might in the future assist researchers design robots that work collectively in swarms or next-generation supplies wherein molecules migrate to repair broken spots.

The outcomes appeared lately within the journal PLOS Computational Biology.

“The origins of such behaviors lie in pretty easy guidelines,” stated Franck Vernerey, major investigator on the brand new examine and professor within the Paul M. Rady Division of Mechanical Engineering. “Single ants aren’t as good as one might imagine, however, collectively, they turn out to be very clever and resilient communities.”

Hearth ants type these large floating blobs of wriggling bugs after storms within the southeastern United States to outlive raging waters.

Of their newest examine, Vernerey and lead writer Robert Wagner drew on mathematical simulations, or fashions, to attempt to determine the mechanics underlying these lifeboats. They found, for instance, that the sooner the ants in a raft transfer, the extra these rafts will broaden outward, usually forming lengthy protrusions.

“This conduct might, primarily, happen spontaneously,” stated Wagner, a graduate scholar in mechanical engineering. “There would not essentially have to be any central decision-making by the ants.”

Treadmill time

Wagner and Vernerey found the secrets and techniques of ant rafts virtually accidentally.

In a separate examine revealed in 2021, the duo dropped hundreds of fireside ants right into a bucket of water with a plastic rod within the center — like a lone reed in the course of stormy waters. Then they waited.

“We left them in there for as much as 8 hours to look at the long-term evolution of those rafts,” Wagner stated. “What we ended up seeing is that the rafts began forming these growths.”

Moderately than keep the identical form over time, the constructions would compress, drawing in to type dense circles of ants. At different factors, the bugs would fan out like pancake batter on a skillet, even constructing bridge-like extensions.

The group reported that the ants appeared to modulate these form adjustments via a technique of “treadmilling.” As Wagner defined, each ant raft is made up of two layers. On the underside, you could find “structural” ants who cling tight to one another and make up the bottom. Above them are a second layer of ants who stroll round freely on high of their fellow colony-members.

Over a interval of hours, ants from the underside might crawl as much as the highest, whereas free-roaming ants will drop right down to turn out to be a part of the structural layer.

“The entire thing is sort of a doughnut-shaped treadmill,” Wagner stated.

Bridge to security

Within the new examine, he and Vernerey wished to discover what makes that treadmill go spherical.

To do this, the crew created a collection of fashions that, primarily, turned an ant raft into a sophisticated recreation of checkers. The researchers programmed roughly 2,000 spherical particles, or “brokers,” to face in for the ants. These brokers could not make choices for themselves, however they did observe a easy algorithm: The pretend ants, for instance, did not like bumping into their neighbors, they usually tried to keep away from falling into the water.

After they let the sport play out, Wagner and Vernerey discovered that their simulated ant rafts behaved quite a bit like the actual issues.

Specifically, the crew was in a position to tune how energetic the brokers of their simulations have been: Had been the person ants sluggish and lazy, or did they stroll round quite a bit? The extra the ants walked, the extra doubtless they have been to type lengthy extensions that caught out from the raft — a bit like folks funneling towards an exit in a crowded stadium.

“The ants on the ideas of those protrusions virtually get pushed off of the sting into the water, which results in a runaway impact,” he stated.

Wagner suspects that fireplace ants use these extensions to really feel round their environments, looking for logs or different bits of dry land.

The researchers nonetheless have quite a bit to find out about ant rafts: What makes ants in the actual world, for instance, decide to modify from sedate to lazy? However, for now, Vernerey says that engineers might study a factor or two from fireplace ants.

“Our work on fireplace ants will, hopefully, assist us perceive how easy guidelines will be programmed, reminiscent of via algorithms dictating how robots work together with others, to realize a well-targeted and clever swarm response,” he stated.

Video: https://youtu.be/IrLc-uDv7GU

Overcoming universal restrictions on metal selectivity by protein design


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    New understanding of complex catalysis advances catalyst design — ScienceDaily


    Lots of the catalytic reactions that drive our trendy world occur in an atomic black field. Scientists know all of the parts that go right into a response, however not how they work together at an atomic stage.

    Understanding the response pathways and kinetics of catalytic reactions on the atomic scale is crucial to designing catalysts for extra energy-efficient and sustainable chemical manufacturing, particularly multimaterial catalysts which have ever-changing floor buildings.

    In a current paper, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson Faculty of Engineering and Utilized Sciences (SEAS), in collaboration with researchers from Stony Brook College, College of Pennsylvania, College of California, Los Angeles, Columbia College, and College of Florida, have peered into the black field to know, for the primary time, the evolving buildings in a multimaterial catalyst on the atomic scale.

    The analysis was completed as a part of the Built-in Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis (IMASC), an Power Frontier Analysis Heart funded by the Division of Power, headquartered at Harvard. It was revealed in Nature Communications.

    “Our multipronged technique combines reactivity measurements, machine learning-enabled spectroscopic evaluation, and kinetic modeling to resolve a long-standing problem within the area of catalysis — how will we perceive the reactive buildings in complicated and dynamic alloy catalysts on the atomic stage,” stated Boris Kozinsky, the Thomas D. Cabot Affiliate Professor of Computational Supplies Science at SEAS and co-corresponding creator of the paper. “This analysis permits us to advance catalyst design past the trial-and-error strategy.”

    The workforce used a multimaterial catalyst containing small clusters of palladium atoms blended with bigger concentrations of gold atoms in particles roughly 5 nanometers in diameter. In these catalysts, the chemical response takes place on the floor of tiny islands of palladium. This class of catalyst is promising as a result of it’s extremely energetic and selective for a lot of chemical reactions nevertheless it’s troublesome to watch as a result of the clusters of palladium encompass only some atoms.

    “Three-dimensional construction and composition of the energetic palladium clusters can’t be decided immediately by imaging as a result of the experimental instruments out there to us don’t present enough decision,” stated Anatoly Frenkel, professor of Supplies Science and Chemical Engineering at Stony Brook and co-corresponding creator of the paper. “As an alternative, we skilled a man-made neural community to seek out the attributes of such a construction, such because the variety of bonds and their varieties, from the x-ray spectrum that’s delicate to them.”

    The researchers used x-ray spectroscopy and machine studying evaluation to slim down potential atomic buildings, then used first rules calculations to mannequin reactions primarily based on these buildings, discovering the atomic buildings that might consequence within the noticed catalytic response.

    “We discovered a strategy to co-refine a construction mannequin with enter from experimental characterization and theoretical response modeling, the place each riff off one another in a suggestions loop,” stated Nicholas Marcella, a current PhD from Stony Brook’s Division of Supplies Science and Chemical Engineering, a postdoc at College of Illinois, and the primary creator of the paper.

    “Our multidisciplinary strategy significantly narrows down the big configurational area to allow exact identification of the energetic website and could be utilized to extra complicated reactions,” stated Kozinsky. “It brings us one step nearer to attaining extra energy-efficient and sustainable catalytic processes for a variety of purposes, from manufacturing of supplies to environmental safety to the pharmaceutical trade.”

    The analysis was co-authored by Jin Soo Lim, Anna M. P?onka, George Yan, Cameron J. Owen, Jessi E. S. van der Hoeven, Alexandre C. Foucher, Hio Tong Ngan, Steven B. Torrisi, Nebojsa S. Marinkovic, Eric A. Stach, Jason F. Weaver, Joanna Aizenberg and Philippe Sautet. It was supported partly by the US Division of Power, Workplace of Science, Workplace of Fundamental Power Sciences beneath Award No. DE-SC0012573.