MENA faces a crisis as the world’s key wheat producers are at war | Business and Economy News

Istanbul, Turkey – As two of the world’s key wheat producers face off in an all-out warfare, tomorrow appears grim for the Center East and North Africa (MENA) nations that want wheat from Ukraine and Russia.

Russia is the world’s number-one wheat exporter – and largest producer after China and India – Ukraine is among the many prime 5 wheat exporters worldwide.

“The wheat harvest begins in about two months and this 12 months’s yield is predicted to be a wholesome one, which means considerable provide for world markets in regular situations. However a protracted warfare in Ukraine can have an effect on the harvest in that nation, and subsequently world provides,” Karabekir Akkoyunlu, a lecturer in politics of the Center East at SOAS, College of London, instructed Al Jazeera.

As well as, the deliberate expulsion of some Russian banks from the worldwide SWIFT banking system in retaliation for Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine is predicted to hit the nation’s exports.

“At a time of worldwide meals disaster and provide chain disruptions because of the coronavirus pandemic, this can be a actual concern and it’s already pushing costs as much as document ranges,” he mentioned.

Rising costs, inadequate provide

Although Turkey domestically produces about half of the wheat it consumes, it has grow to be more and more reliant on imports, 85 p.c of which come from Russia and Ukraine.

Ankara’s wheat imports from Ukraine reached document ranges in 2021, in keeping with official information from the Turkish Statistics Institute.

“The Turkish authorities says the nation has the manufacturing capability to make up for the loss in wheat imports, besides, it will push up the prices considerably,” Akkoyunlu mentioned.

“A protracted warfare will make a troublesome 12 months worse for the common Turkish citizen, who’ve already seen their bread get lighter however dearer, and are having to pay document electrical energy payments.”

“Nearing an election 12 months, it will enhance the strain on the [President Recep Tayyip] Erdogan authorities, which is shedding floor to the opposition in most opinion polls,” he mentioned.

In latest months, large queues of individuals ready to purchase subsidised bread have popped up in numerous districts of Istanbul, as cash-strapped residents commerce their time to avoid wasting a number of lira on bread as hovering inflation and the battered Turkish forex have pushed up prices and dealt a extreme blow to buying energy.

Residents queue up to buy some breads at the Istanbul Municipality's subsidised bread shopResidents queue on the Istanbul Municipality’s subsidised bread store in Sultangazi [File: Yasin Akgul/AFP]

Rising costs and inadequate provide have already affected economically-depressed nations within the Center East and North Africa that purchase the majority of their wheat from Russia and Ukraine, bringing them to the brink of disaster.

“Ukraine provides an enormous quantity of the grain to most of those nations and numerous these locations are already on a knife’s edge. The least little factor that disturbs bread costs much more might actually kick off numerous turmoil,” Monica Marks, a professor of Center East politics at New York College Abu Dhabi, instructed Al Jazeera.

“Not like Turkey, most economies within the Arab world are closely depending on wheat imports. Egypt is way out on the dependent finish of the spectrum. Egypt depends on Russia and Ukraine for 85 p.c of its wheat imports, Tunisia depends on Ukraine for between 50 and 60 p.c of its wheat imports,” she mentioned.

Marks mentioned that Tunisia is already “completely up in opposition to a wall economically … lots of people in Tunisia speak concerning the potential for a Lebanon situation, and they aren’t loopy”.

She cited stories that the Tunisian authorities has already been unable to pay for incoming wheat shipments, and mentioned there have been widespread shortages of grain merchandise comparable to pasta and couscous, which represent a good portion of the Tunisian food plan.

A worker carries fresh loaves of bread at a bakery in the El Menzah area of Tunis A employee carries recent loaves of bread at a bakery in El Menzah, Tunis [File: Fethi Belaid/AFP]

Akkoyunlu additionally famous that Egypt, Tunisia and Lebanon, along with Yemen and Sudan are at nice danger from a surge in costs and a spike in demand.

Whereas warfare between Russia and Ukraine intensifies, a possible lower in wheat exports from their fertile lands might be felt in weak nations all the way in which from the sting of North Africa to the Levant.

Marks mentioned that whereas Morocco just isn’t as depending on a few of its neighbours on wheat imports, it’s at present experiencing its worst drought in 30 years, leading to a surge in meals costs that can finally power the federal government to lift grain imports and subsidies.

“There may be additionally numerous heavy dependency, even in nations which might be flush with hydrocarbon assets that we assume due to that will be in a greater place to climate the storm, like Algeria or Libya,” Marks mentioned.

Given bread’s function as a politically-charged commodity on this a part of the world, additional pressure on wheat provide and escalating costs might even spark revolt.

“Bread has been a key trigger and image of standard uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia going again to the Nineteen Seventies and 80s. The Egyptian revolution in 2011 was preceded by a significant drought in Eurasia and a corresponding rise in bread costs,” Akkoyunlu mentioned.

An already slowed Indian economy faces fresh risks | Business and Economy News

Increased oil costs over Ukraine disaster add to India’s woes of widening commerce deficit, weakening rupee, greater inflation.

Rising crude oil costs and provide disruptions following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may additional sap an Indian economic system already slowed by COVID-19, posing dangers to family spending and personal investments, economists have mentioned.

India, which meets practically 80 p.c of its oil wants by imports, could possibly be hit by a widening commerce deficit, weakening rupee and better inflation after Brent crude costs shot above $105 a barrel final week, the economists mentioned.

The “surge in oil costs on account of the [Ukraine] disaster poses appreciable dangers to the Indian economic system”, Aditi Gupta, an economist at Financial institution of Baroda, mentioned in a observe on Friday.

India’s economic system seemingly grew 6 p.c year-on-year throughout the three months to end-December, a survey confirmed final week, slower than the earlier two quarters, with new fears rising over slowing momentum after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The median forecast from a survey of 38 economists interviewed between February 21 and 23 was that gross home product (GDP) in Asia’s third-largest economic system grew 6 p.c year-on-year within the October-December quarter, after increasing 20.1 p.c within the April-June interval and eight.4 p.c in July-September.

The expansion forecasts ranged from 3 p.c to 7.5 p.c. India is ready to announce its GDP knowledge for the end-December interval and new estimates for the 12 months to end-March on Monday at 1200 GMT.

Indian rupee was the second-worst performer in Asia last week

Slower tempo of enlargement

A ten p.c rise in crude oil costs may decrease India’s GDP progress by 0.2 share factors, whereas posing dangers to company revenue margins as they might not be capable of move on rising enter prices, Sonal Varma, an economist with Nomura Holdings, wrote in a analysis observe.

Non-public consumption, which contributes practically 55 p.c to India’s GDP, can also be nonetheless under pre-pandemic ranges after a extreme blow to family incomes from two years of pandemic disruption.

Three waves of COVID-19 have pounded small companies, hitting eating places, tourism, instructional establishments and retail, and inflicting enormous job losses.

A slower tempo of enlargement may harm funding and job creation, testing fiscal and financial insurance policies which have remained free regardless of rising inflation pressures.

New Delhi, nevertheless, says the economic system has been on the mend on account of its reforms and vaccination programme, and that the third pandemic wave in January had a restricted financial impact.

“Provide shortages stay a near-term headwind. However once they do ease, the restoration ought to begin selecting up in earnest,” mentioned Shilan Shah, an economist at Capital Economics in Singapore.

The Reserve Financial institution of India (RBI), which has slashed its repo fee – the rate of interest at which it lends cash to industrial banks – by a complete 115 foundation factors since March 2020 to cushion the shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, has maintained its accommodative financial stance to help the financial restoration.

RBI has projected financial progress of 9.2 p.c for the fiscal 12 months to March 31, 2022, and seven.8 p.c for the next 12 months.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s authorities final week flagged that the pandemic restoration might be challenged by geopolitical dangers.

“When worth chains are dealing with challenges and threats due to these disturbances, our restoration, not only for India, however international locations all over the place might be severely hampered,” finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman mentioned Friday. “Hopefully, some sort of restoration of peace on the earliest will occur primarily based on which recoveries may be sustainable.”

A rural Utah community faces a choice

ATVs on untreated dirt roads and trails generate clouds of dust near homes in Duck Creek Saturday, Sept. 4, 2021. The use of Magnesium Chloride to curb the dust from increasing traffic has been a point of contention among residents.

On a sunny afternoon in June 2019, in southern Utah’s distant alpine hamlet of Duck Creek Village, an aged man shuffled between the ponderosa pines lining Erin DeLoe’s gravel driveway and requested her for $200. It was for the mud, he stated, a shared neighborhood drawback he had taken the initiative to unravel. In response to growing site visitors from out of doors vacationers on all-terrain automobiles (ATVs) and weekend guests escaping Las Vegas or Salt Lake Metropolis, he had employed a Wyoming-based firm referred to as Dustbusters Enterprises to spray their roads with a magnesium chloride answer meant to tamp down the grime floor. Now he needed her to chip in.

DeLoe, an accountant, was simply again from a path run and, admittedly, lined in mud. She informed him she didn’t assume she needed to assist that. Then she went inside to scour the Web for details about magnesium chloride.

M.L.S. Preview: New Team, New Faces and a New York Champion

Main League Soccer begins its season on Saturday, with an earlier begin and an accelerated end to accommodate the World Cup, one other growth staff (and plans for extra) and — for the primary time — a New York-area membership because the league’s reigning champion.

The common season will begin in February in order that it may possibly wrap up with the M.L.S. Cup closing on Nov. 5, the earliest date for the championship recreation in 20 years, and greater than a month sooner than final season’s closing. The shift has been made to maintain the season out of the way in which of the World Cup, which kicks off on Nov. 21 in Qatar.

A disruption-free season is the objective after the pandemic led to a big revamp of the 2020 marketing campaign and a delay and stadium restrictions in 2021. The league reviews that its gamers are 97 % vaccinated, which ought to assist rather a lot.

For the sixth straight 12 months a season opens with a brand new growth staff: This 12 months the newcomer is Charlotte F.C., rising the variety of Main League Soccer groups with Soccer Membership of their names to a dozen.

There are extra to return: St. Louis Metropolis S.C. (Soccer Membership) joins subsequent 12 months, bringing the league to a metropolis with a sturdy soccer heritage. St. Louis would be the league’s twenty ninth staff when it takes the sphere, and Las Vegas is predicted to comply with for a fair 30. This week, Commissioner Don Garber mentioned the league was already wanting past that. “We’re starting the method of deciding if it ought to broaden to 32,” he mentioned. “There are different North American leagues with that many groups, and I believe our league may deal with that.” No closing willpower has been made, although, he mentioned.

With Charlotte taking part in within the 75,000-capacity Financial institution of America Stadium, residence of the N.F.L.’s Carolina Panthers, there may be an expectation that its residence opener in opposition to Los Angeles F.C. on March 5 will break the M.L.S. attendance document of 73,000, which was set on the 2018 closing in Atlanta.

New York Metropolis F.C., which gained its first league championship final season by defeating the Portland Timbers on penalties, is returning most of its key gamers, notably Valentin Castellanos, who led the league with 22 targets. It has since added the 26-year-old Brazilian Thiago Martins to bolster its protection. However regardless of its playoff heroics, N.Y.C.F.C. had solely the eighth greatest document within the common season, and Cup repeats are uncommon: No staff has carried out it for the reason that Los Angeles Galaxy in 2011 and ’12.

“That’s the objective, in fact, to win once more,” Coach Ronny Deila mentioned this week. He mentioned that whereas his staff’s season ended the place it wished to be final season, not all the things was excellent, and that, he hoped, would drive his staff to enhance.

“We’re a champion,” he mentioned. “It’s all the time arduous to duplicate that. On the similar time, we had been 20 factors behind New England final 12 months.”

The New England Revolution posted the league’s greatest document in 2021, a surprising 22-5-7 mark that was 12 factors away from the subsequent greatest staff, however it is going to look a bit completely different. New England offered Tajon Buchanan, the 22-year-old Canadian midfielder, to Belgium’s Membership Brugge; traded ahead Teal Bunbury to Nashville; and can quickly lose its rock, goalkeeper Matt Turner, to Arsenal. (Turner, now america nationwide staff’s No. 1, is predicted to remain in New England by means of midseason.) The excellent news for the Revolution is that the reigning league M.V.P., Carles Gil, is again, and the veteran Jozy Altidore has been added for some extra scoring punch.

The Seattle Sounders practically gained the Western Convention final 12 months regardless of taking part in all 12 months with out ahead Jordan Morris, who sustained a second main knee damage whereas on mortgage at Swansea Metropolis within the Premier League, and the Philadelphia Union could have loads of motivation after shedding to New York within the playoffs when lacking 11 gamers due to Covid.

And L.A.F.C. is all the time going to be a contender so long as it has attacker Carlos Vela. “Having Carlos is unbelievable,” Coach Steve Cherundolo mentioned. “He’s a objective scorer. He can arrange targets. He’s an offensive menace, it doesn’t matter what specific place he’s in. It’s nice to have him.”

However the brand new faces additionally embody youthful gamers, just like the 20-year-old Argentine midfielder Thiago Almada, who joined Atlanta United for the very best switch charge ever paid by the league: $16 million.

“We’re not too long ago a part of the worldwide soccer ecosystem,” Garber mentioned. “That was not the case a number of years in the past. That is the primary 12 months the league has been within the high 5 in each incoming and outgoing participant gross sales. That’s not by luck and happenstances. It’s a targeted technique to put money into youth growth, to make the most of a ripe and fertile market, and guarantee we proceed to have an entice product with worldwide gamers.”

Messi not too long ago instructed a Spanish tv channel, La Sexta, “I all the time had the dream of having the ability to get pleasure from and have the expertise of dwelling in america,” setting off an anticipated frenzy amongst stateside soccer followers. After all, there isn’t any proof that he really plans to return.

Russia faces sanctions, Russia sends ‘peacekeepers’ to Ukraine, Trump app : NPR


Russia has despatched troops into japanese Ukraine. Is that this an act of struggle or the continuation of the identical battle that is been occurring there for the previous eight years?


Effectively, that is what the U.S. is making an attempt to resolve with the intention to determine the right way to reply. The Biden administration already introduced that People cannot do enterprise within the separatist areas of Ukraine that Putin has now declared impartial. However the U.S. is holding again on a fuller set of sanctions towards Putin. The U.N. Safety Council held an emergency assembly final evening on Ukraine, and that is what U.S. Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield stated.


LINDA THOMAS-GREENFIELD: President Putin is testing our worldwide system. He’s testing our resolve and seeing simply how far he can push us all. He needs to reveal that, via power, he could make a farce of the U.N. We should act collectively in response to this disaster.

MARTIN: So what does that seem like? NPR’s Jackie Northam is right here with us this morning. Hey, Jackie.


MARTIN: So what are you able to inform us about how the U.S. and NATO allies have responded to this newest provocation by Putin?

NORTHAM: Effectively, the primary reactions have been to launch sanctions towards Russia. Simply this morning, Prime Minister Boris Johnson from the U.Ok. advised an emergency nationwide safety assembly that the U.Ok. would launch a barrage of sanctions towards the nation. He did not particularly say what they had been however that Russian financial pursuits could be hit arduous and that there have been – there was no place for Russian oligarchs to cover. The U.S. can be sanctioning Russia, however it’s a much more restricted method, simply concentrating on these two breakaway areas of Donetsk and Luhansk, and that may stop any People from doing enterprise there or bringing any items or expertise from the area. However to be clear, these are restricted sanctions by the U.S. and far completely different than those the U.S. has been promising to impose on Russia for the previous couple of weeks ought to it invade Ukraine, not simply these breakaway areas.

MARTIN: Proper. And so that is what the U.S. is making an attempt to outline, whether or not or not this constitutes an invasion of Ukraine. What would these broader set of sanctions seem like?

NORTHAM: Effectively, they aim and attempt to cripple Russia’s economic system – so, you already know, sanctioning a few of its greatest banks, stopping them from being a part of the, you already know, international monetary market, withholding any U.S.-made expertise to Russia which may hamper Russia’s efforts to, you already know, modernize its navy and likewise threatening to cease this new pure gasoline pipeline from Russia to Germany from going surfing. And it is pure gasoline that helps prop up Russia’s economic system.

MARTIN: So what would it not take for the U.S. to resolve that Russia has now crossed that line and that it is applicable to focus on Putin and his shut allies, these banks, as you had been speaking about, with these sanctions?

NORTHAM: Effectively, a senior administration official says all of it depends upon what Russia does now. So who is aware of? Maybe if Russia strikes additional into Ukraine, that would spark these critical sanctions we’re speaking about. And actually, the U.S. says it’s anticipated to announce one other spherical of sanctions at present towards Russia.

MARTIN: So Putin has declared these two states as impartial. He has despatched forces into the Donbas and Luhansk areas. The U.N. needed to maintain an emergency Safety Council assembly. The place is diplomacy at this level, Jackie?

NORTHAM: Effectively, you already know, there’s – the window for a diplomatic decision to this disaster is rapidly closing. There isn’t any query about that. As you talked about, the U.N. Safety Council met, however there was no motion taken. Immediately, Secretary of State Antony Blinken is because of meet along with his Ukrainian counterpart, and he was imagined to be assembly with Russian International Minister Sergey Lavrov on Thursday. No phrase if that is going to occur.

MARTIN: NPR’s Jackie Northam. Thanks.

NORTHAM: Thanks.

MARTIN: OK, in order the U.S. and NATO attempt to determine the right way to maintain Putin accountable for this newest transfer, Ukrainians now really feel below risk in a brand new manner.

MARTINEZ: Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskyy is making an attempt to reassure his folks. He stated yesterday that Ukraine’s internationally acknowledged borders would stay that manner and that there was no motive for chaotic actions.

MARTIN: NPR’s Charles Maynes is with us. He’s within the southern Russian metropolis of Rostov-on-Don close to the Ukrainian border. Charles, thanks for being right here.

CHARLES MAYNES, BYLINE: Blissful to do it.

MARTIN: So what are you listening to from Russians there?

MAYNES: Effectively, you already know, to start with, you already know, a lot of those occasions occurred right here late into the evening, so Russians right here in Rostov and elsewhere awoke this morning to the information and a brand new actuality, you already know, that the Kremlin had taken actions that would result in struggle or crushing sanctions or probably each. And we now have information that Russian tanks are in these so-called republics as a part of what Russia says is its peacekeeping power. Russian state TV is exhibiting celebrations within the separatist areas, in addition to – I have been getting messages from Russian nationalists at residence. They’ve lengthy championed independence ever since collaborating in a Russian-backed proxy struggle in east Ukraine in 2014 – actually, a part of this broader Kremlin effort to undermine Ukraine’s ambitions to hitch NATO and the EU.

However, you already know, much less clear, I feel, is what the remainder of Russia will make of this could violence in Ukraine spiral, and that actually appears to be like potential. Two Ukrainian troopers had been killed in a single day, dozens wounded. The separatists at the moment are speaking about seizing further territory within the Donbas now that they’ve Russian backing. And in the meantime, Russia is accusing Ukraine of shelling civilians, even staging assaults on Russian territory right here the place I’m in Rostov Oblast. That is close to the border once more. And all this could possibly be used as a pretext for additional navy motion, which, after all, is what the U.S. and allies have been warning about all alongside. I imply, simply on a private word, I made a go to to the border yesterday, and I may see tanks and navy autos tucked within the woods to the facet of the principle freeway, and that is only one a part of this huge power of some 150,000 Russian troops now that appears to be an invasion power.

MARTIN: Ukraine’s President Zelenskyy is making an attempt to reassure Ukrainians, however that could be a actually powerful job proper now – proper? – I imply, after Russia took Crimea in 2014, now has acknowledged these two Russian-backed areas of Ukraine as impartial.

MAYNES: Yeah, you already know, President Volodymyr Zelenskyy gave a speech late, late final evening calling the Russian transfer a violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty. He stated Ukraine needed peace however wouldn’t give something away to anybody. He additionally referred to as for a transparent and efficient response from the worldwide group. Let’s hear in.


PRESIDENT VOLODYMYR ZELENSKYY: (Non-English language spoken).

MAYNES: So right here Zelenskyy is saying that that is the second when Ukraine finds out who its actual mates and companions are and who will proceed to push again towards Russia with simply phrases alone. You realize, I feel it is truthful to say that is actually the newest instance of Zelenskyy’s frustration with Western powers who’ve been warning Russia behind the scenes of what may occur if it assaults Ukraine, slightly than brazenly spelling out what is going to occur.

MARTIN: Charles, I wish to ask you concerning the assembly, the speech, that Putin had yesterday as a result of he is such a black field – proper? – on the worldwide stage. It’s extremely uncommon to have the ability to perceive precisely what’s occurring in his thoughts or his decision-making course of. So each alternative to see him in a public setting offers us some clues. So what did you see in his conferences yesterday that had been placed on public tv, in his speech?

MAYNES: Yeah, this was a extremely, actually indignant speech. And what struck me was that though a lot of it was a chauvinistic harangue about Ukraine, the opposite half targeted on what Putin sees because the West making the most of Russia after the tip of the Chilly Warfare – you already know, anger over NATO growth eastward in direction of Russia’s borders and about what Putin argues are Western designs to comprise and even destroy Russia at present. And Putin’s obsessions with these subjects have not been resolved in any manner by this transfer into the Donbas, which means that yesterday’s drama is a prelude to extra brinkmanship or maybe even battle to come back.

MARTIN: NPR’s Charles Maynes. Thanks.

MAYNES: Thanks.


MARTIN: Former President Donald Trump has a brand new social media app.

MARTINEZ: Yeah, it is referred to as Fact Social, and it is making an attempt to be a conservative-leaning different to Twitter, which banned Trump final 12 months.

MARTIN: So many questions. Let’s put them to NPR tech reporter Bobby Allyn. Hey, Bobby.


MARTIN: So I heard that the launch of this social media app, Fact Social, didn’t go to plan.

ALLYN: (Laughter) Yeah, not precisely. So there was tons of curiosity. The app was launched Monday morning and rapidly shot to the highest of Apple’s most-downloaded record. However many individuals, myself included, who tried to test it out had been caught in a form of tech doom loop. You realize, there are these e-mail confirmations that had been promised and by no means arrived. You’d put in a code and get an error message. This was extensively reported throughout Twitter and different social media. Those that had been capable of make accounts had been positioned on a waitlist with some a whole bunch of hundreds of individuals in entrance of them.

MARTIN: Bless you for doing that for the sake of journalism, Bobby.

ALLYN: (Laughter) Proper.

MARTIN: So simply remind us of the bigger context right here. Twitter, after all, banned Trump, however say extra about his agenda with this app.

ALLYN: Yeah, precisely. So, you already know, since he was banned from Twitter, Fb and YouTube after statements he made urging supporters to storm the Capitol, you already know, he has needed to begin his personal Twitter-esque service. And he is enlisted former Congressman Devin Nunes to steer the trouble. Nunes lately went on Fox Information to speak up Fact Social. He says all of the bugs will likely be labored out by the tip of March and that it is all about, you already know, giving folks their voice again and making a social media platform that is not managed by a giant Silicon Valley firm. And let me remind you, this can be a actually crowded house, Rachel. There’s, like, half a dozen different conservative-leaning, you already know, social media apps making an attempt to tug folks away from the Twitters and Facebooks of the world.

MARTIN: Proper, so he has competitors, even Donald Trump has competitors, in that house. So does this app, then, with Trump’s identify hooked up to it – does it have any form of shot of breaking via?

ALLYN: Actually has a really highly effective publicity machine. I imply, Trump allies like Representatives Marjorie Taylor Greene and Matt Gaetz are speaking it up. So is Fox Information star Sean Hannity. It has raised a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of {dollars}. So given these massive names and its sizable fundraising, you already know, it does have potential. However consultants I talked to are fairly uncertain that it’s going to ever come wherever near changing Twitter. This is Hunter Faculty professor Jessie Daniels, who research on-line extremism.

JESSIE DANIELS: I feel a part of what he has discovered so invaluable, particularly about Twitter, is that it each is relied upon by journalists as a supply, and it is utilized by an actual cross-section of individuals politically, and so Twitter turns into a form of target-rich surroundings.

ALLYN: In different phrases, Fact Social won’t be that, proper? Twitter has some 300 million customers and many completely different views, a lot of viral squabbles, and if a platform is generally like-minded folks – you already know, principally an echo chamber – you won’t have these fights that make Twitter create so many headlines.

MARTIN: Though it will probably serve to animate his base, could not it?

ALLYN: That is true. No, that could be very true. You realize, however – you already know, there’s additionally solely so many individuals focused on a nonmainstream different to Twitter. So it is type of – you already know, are these folks, actually, who’re at different websites going to go to Trump’s information website? And I’ll word right here, Rachel, that I checked out the app’s phrases of service, and there may be one factor that’s prohibited on Fact Social, and that’s, quote, “to disparage, tarnish or in any other case hurt the backers of the positioning.” And I think about meaning Donald Trump.

MARTIN: NPR’s Bobby Allyn. We respect your reporting on this, Bobby. Thanks.

ALLYN: Thanks, Rachel.

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