The law of nature reveals their effect, with a major time delay though — ScienceDaily

Researchers investigated modifications in pollutant ranges within the North Sea over an interval time. The outcomes confirmed {that a} various cocktail of chemical compounds has been polluting the atmosphere, particularly over the past 100 years. In addition they discovered {that a} lower in air pollution solely turned obvious within the atmosphere a long time after the substances had been banned.

The North Sea’s distinctive coastal area stands for a historic scene and the North’s pleasure and pleasure. Seaside and dune landscapes attraction for leisure and performance as industrial and enterprise location moreover a preferred place for dwelling. Nonetheless, the ever present air pollution on this appreciated atmosphere stays unseen. Contaminants enter the coastal ecosystems repeatedly by way of rivers, the ambiance and thru direct sources. Whereas the North Sea’s general chemical stress originating from previous identified pollution declined inside the previous 100 years, Ongoing human actions trigger the continual deposition of latest contaminant teams inside this distinctive atmosphere.

The chemical cocktail of our industrial society

The primary causes for the deposition of pollution within the North Sea are attributed to industrial inputs, which happen frequently because the industrial revolution started. Subsequent prohibitions and governmental rules on the usage of environmentally-critical substances decreased the air pollution significantly. Certainly, new substance teams are completely launched into the atmosphere. These new substances are characterised by poor degradability and poisonous results — they’re known as PBT substances. Moreover, there’s a deficit of worldwide rules offering restrict values.

“With a view to absolutely perceive the state of the North Sea and its altering environmental pressures, now we have launched into a sort of ‘chemical time journey’ into the previous utilizing fashionable analytical tools,” says Dr. Daniel Pröfrock, head of the Division of Inorganic Environmental Chemistry. As a part of the examine, sediment cores from the Skagerrak had been subjected to elaborate chemical evaluation. The Skagerrak is a bit of the North Sea between the coasts of Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Since most pollution like to connect to wonderful sediments, they are often transported over lengthy distances.

Because of the prevailing currents within the North Sea, the wonderful sediments are repeatedly transported to the Skagerrak area. Right here they’re deposited because of the excessive water’s depth. Consequently, a robust accumulation of sediments containing pollution causes the seabed to develop by a number of millimetres per 12 months. Sediments are additionally referred to as the reminiscence of a watershed, because the various publicity throughout completely different instances is mirrored of their deposited layers.

Sedimentary historical past

The researchers revealed that the bottom examined sediment layers had been over 100 years previous. Within the laboratories of the mission companions, round 90 completely different pollution and their content material within the completely different sediment layers had been decided . This supplied the chemical fingerprint of every epoch. Polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and per- and polyfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFASs) in addition to numerous metals comparable to lead or arsenic had been among the many analysed pollution. The declining concentrations of various natural pollutant teams recorded within the youthful sediment layers point out the effectiveness of the newly launched restrictions and bans.

A considerably elevated focus of arsenic within the youthful sediment layers refers to attainable emissions from corroded ordonance. This materials was disposed on a big scale within the examine space after the World Battle II.

Constructive prohibition

“Altogether, the outcomes spotlight the significance, effectiveness and justification of legislative measures and its optimistic impression concerning the achievement of a great environmental standing within the marine ecosystem” explains Dr. Tristan Zimmermann, co-author of the examine.

It has been demonstrated that even after the early introduction of regulatory measures, lengthy intervals of time are required till pollutant concentrations return to their pure background ranges. Furthermore, even a short-term use of sure chemical compounds can subsequently result in long-term deposition of such substances in marine sediments. Their poor degradability leads to a sluggish focus decline inside the atmosphere.

This imbalance between utility and deposition emphasizes the necessity for considerably improved and versatile governmental monitoring applications that cowl identified and ideally additionally new pollution. These monitoring applications ought to be capable to acquire related information in a short while, which in flip needs to be used to set sediment high quality tips. With out legally outlined environmental targets, measures to guard the atmosphere lack legitimacy.

As well as, it’s important that the monitoring applications are capable of map the great combination of gear current within the atmosphere and the ensuing toxicity for organisms. Sooner or later, sustainable ideas (inexperienced chemistry or benign-by-design) ought to change into necessary to keep away from the enter of hazardous and protracted pollution into the atmosphere.

The examine was a part of the NOAH mission (North Sea Statement and Evaluation of Habitats) funded with 2.5 Million Euro by the German Federal Ministry of Training and Analysis (BMBF). The mission was one in all twelve tasks of the Coastal Analysis Agenda for the North Sea and Baltic Sea (KüNO) of the BMBF Framework Program “Analysis for Sustainable Improvement” (FONA) and was coordinated on the Helmholtz-ZentrumHereon between 2013 and 2019.

Analysis: Can Nigeria’s new electoral law inspire a new era? | Muhammadu Buhari

Since Muhammadu Buhari ascended to the Nigerian presidency in Could 2015, he has gone backwards and forwards repeatedly with parliament on the modification of the all-important electoral invoice.

That dance lastly ended final week when he accepted this enchancment to Nigeria’s 2010 Electoral Act, enacting into legislation safeguards for a extra clear voting and collation course of.

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, is gearing up for what are set to be tense normal elections subsequent February and a few of its widespread politicians are already flinging themselves into what might transform a charged marketing campaign season.

And whereas that might be sufficient pleasure, the West African nation has now toughened its electoral legal guidelines, including to the strain and signalling that it might, for the primary time in years, have elections that would extensively be thought of credible.

It’s a main improvement in a rustic that ranks low on civil liberties and the place elections are sometimes marred by widespread vote-rigging and voter intimidation.

Notably, the brand new legislation offers the Impartial Electoral Fee (INEC) extra decision-making powers and units apart early funding for it to keep away from embarrassing technical and logistic lags that noticed the final elections in 2019 rescheduled and left some voters unable to train their rights in the long run.

Maybe most significantly, the legislation additionally offers authorized backing to using digital card readers for voting and digital strategies for transferring outcomes for collation, a sticking level for some politicians who had argued that the state of the nation’s telecommunications system might hinder voting in some areas.

On the flip facet, civil society members see the cardboard readers, used for the primary time basically elections in 2015, as aiding transparency and lowering incidences of rigging. However as a result of the machines beforehand lacked authorized backing, the admissibility of digital knowledge in courts has generated scorching debates.

The brand new act goes into impact instantly, which means that INEC can test-run the principles as quickly as July this 12 months when neighbouring states Osun and Ekiti, within the nation’s southwest area, will maintain elections for brand spanking new governors.

Rejections and restrictions

In a televised tackle to Nigerians on Thursday evening after approving the invoice, President Buhari mentioned it “might positively revolutionise elections in Nigeria”, including that the technological improvements offered “would assure the constitutional rights of residents to vote and to take action successfully”.

However he, who campaigned as an incorruptible politician throughout his profitable presidential run in 2015, had appeared very reluctant to go the invoice into legislation up to now.

Since 2015, the presidency has rejected some provisions of the invoice and returned it to parliament a complete of 5 occasions, making it one of many longest-debated legal guidelines in Nigeria’s historical past.

The rejections have been typically accompanied by requests for amendments. In a single rejection, Buhari cited grammatical errors.

One other time, he delayed till just a few months to the 2019 normal elections after which complained that it was too near D-day to deliberate on the invoice. That election, extensively acknowledged as marred by vote-buying and voter intimidation, noticed Buhari win a second and closing time period in workplace.

Final December, he requested parliament to take away restrictions mandating that political events maintain direct main elections as a substitute of handpicking the favourites of extra highly effective celebration leaders.

The lawmakers acquiesced, bending to the president’s will whilst they launched extra manipulation-proof measures to the invoice. After they gave the president a means out of direct primaries, for instance, they added clauses that made it unimaginable for political appointees to run for workplace with out giving up their present posts.

Piling on the stress

Nonetheless, the presidency’s ways, coming at a time when Nigeria faces requires a break up from a number of quarters because of heightened insecurity, hovering inflation and ethnic polarity, prompted nationwide agitation. Many questioned the intentions of Buhari, a one-time navy head of state who had himself criticised the electoral course of in courts in his three earlier, unsuccessful bids on the high place.

“You’d suppose that it is a man that might be very involved with electoral reform, however he hasn’t been,” says Ayisa Osori, director of the Open Society Initiative for West Africa and a one-time aspiring parliamentarian.

Osori says the president was seemingly defending allies within the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC) celebration whose members are angling to safe main positions subsequent 12 months. “He declined to signal as a result of the provisions would have made it troublesome for individuals who usually rig elections to take action.”

However many had had sufficient. With barely a 12 months to the overall elections that can usher in a recent administration, civil society organisations, opposition celebration members and others piled on the stress. Nationwide newspapers known as out the delay in scathing editorials and activists staged protests in Abuja.

It was clear that additional holdups might convey widespread protests once more, the sort that rocked the nation in 2020 when younger individuals protested in opposition to police brutality and have been mowed down by safety forces. The incident, described as Nigeria’s Tiananmen Sq. second, has left one among many dangerous stains on Buhari’s eight-year time period.

That stress, and a willingness to keep away from one other breakdown of order, seemingly pressured the president to oblige on Thursday, Osori says.

However Buhari had one final request, even after he signed the invoice into legislation. He requested parliament to take away the brand new clauses that cease political appointees from working concurrently for one more submit. This request, specialists say, is more likely to favour Nigeria’s Legal professional Normal Abubakar Malami – a detailed confidant of the president’s – who has eyes on the governorship place in his northern Kebbi state.

Combined emotions

It stays unclear if parliament will consent to Buhari’s closing request to additional take away clauses, though it’s not seemingly that there can be any penalties to refusing it and activists say the clauses needs to be saved.

However whereas there’s pleasure for extra credible elections in civil society camps, some are calling for warning. Nigeria has a protracted historical past of botched elections and there are fears that 2023 will nonetheless see politicians provide you with new methods to sport the system.

Yemi Ademolekun, director of EnoughisEnough, an organisation advocating for higher governance, says legal guidelines on paper can not assure credible elections and that INEC might face logistical challenges that could possibly be taken benefit of.

“Expertise is a device that have to be deployed by people, [but] people are imperfect so there will probably be some points,” she says. “The purpose is to maintain them on the barest minimal.”

Electoral participation considerations stay excessive in a rustic with turnout repeatedly hovering round 30 to 35 % – in line with INEC – a low continental common. The truth that the identical identified politicians are contesting once more in 2023 might make turnout even worse, analysts level out.

Within the oil-rich Niger Delta area the place belief within the authorities is traditionally low due to poor useful resource administration, individuals are unaffected by the drama across the electoral legislation and are “disenchanted by virtually every part,” says Nubari Saatah, president of the Niger Delta Congress political motion.

Nonetheless, Osori of OSIWA mentioned whereas legal guidelines are just one a part of guaranteeing truthful elections in Nigeria, it’s nonetheless commendable {that a} sturdy one is lastly in place.

The following steps, she mentioned, are for voters to be vigilant. “We can not relaxation,” she informed Al Jazeera. “That is simply half one of many battle for respectable elections. Now it’s simply to maintain at it and supply INEC with what they want together with our voice in the event that they want it.”

Recent Utah rule allows practice of law without supervision of a lawyer

Estimated learn time: 2-3 minutes

Resolving widespread authorized issues is easier and more cost effective since Utah’s Supreme Court docket authorized a rule permitting licensed paralegal practitioners to deal with particular authorized processes with out the supervision of an legal professional.

About this system

Whereas it is completely essential in some instances to rent a lawyer, not each authorized matter requires the expertise and coaching of a licensed legal professional. Guidelines adopted by the Utah Supreme Court docket in 2018 permit licensed paralegal practitioners to follow in particular areas of regulation with out direct involvement or supervision of an legal professional.

Upon the profitable completion of rigorous eligibility necessities and a complete licensing examination, a licensed paralegal practitioner (LPP) is permitted to follow regulation in a restricted capacity– doing lots of the issues historically completed by attorneys whereas charging decrease charges. The courtroom created the LPP program to enhance entry to justice for Utah residents.

What LPPs can do

At present, LPP’s may be licensed to follow regulation within the areas of household regulation, debt assortment and landlord-tenant disputes. LPPs can file courtroom paperwork and function mediators, however they’re prohibited from arguing in courtroom, in accordance with the Utah State Bar. An LPP can file authorized varieties, full settlement negotiations, evaluation courtroom paperwork, and signify shoppers in mediation.

Recent Utah rule allows practice of law without supervision of a lawyer
Picture: Shutterstock

Required coaching for LPPs

At present, the required LPP lessons are supplied completely at Utah Valley College, that are on-line and self-paced. Along with the LPP programs, candidates should full 1500 hours of substantive law-related expertise within the three years previous to making use of and possess a qualifying instructional diploma or certification. As soon as eligibility has been established, candidates should efficiently go the LPP licensing examination administered twice yearly by the Utah State Bar. Upon profitable completion of the examination, LPPs will likely be sworn in together with attorneys who go the Bar Examination.

The LPP examination features a obligatory ethics part and specialised tracks to develop into licensed in household regulation, debt regulation or landlord-tenant regulation. LPPs sit for an examination and are totally vetted earlier than being licensed by the Utah State Bar, similar to attorneys. As soon as licensed, an LPP can be a part of an current regulation agency or arrange their very own follow.

Incomes potential for LPPs

The incomes potential of an LPP is actually limitless. An LPP can work for an current regulation agency and earn a wage and advantages, or they’ll create their very own agency and follow within the areas during which they’re licensed.

To be taught extra in regards to the LPP program, you may go to the Utah State Court docket LPP web site, the Utah State Bar’s web site, or Utah Valley College LPP web page. You could find a listing of Utah’s LPPs right here.

Extra tales chances are you’ll be serious about

Capital demonstrators demand Legislature repeal Utah law aimed at ending elective abortions

The demonstrators, from the Celebration for Socialism and Liberation, additionally decried laws that may place restrictions on transgender folks.

(Francisco Kjolseth | The Salt Lake Tribune) The Utah Capitol at nightfall on Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2020, in the course of the legislative session.

A contingent from the Salt Lake Metropolis department of the Celebration for Socialism and Liberation delivered an inventory of calls for to state lawmakers on Friday — that’s, after a short setback when Utah Freeway Patrol troopers pressured them to show off their public-address system.

Solely a handful of individuals have been current to take heed to the deal with exterior the Utah Home chamber, which, the group stated, was by design because the speeches have been being live-streamed.

Their calls for encompassed points equivalent to the correct to have an abortion, vital race principle, honest pay and entry to healthcare and reasonably priced housing.

4 audio system enumerated the group’s calls for and addressed a number of particular payments which can be shifting via the Legislature in the course of the common session. They decried laws that may place restrictions on transgender folks — HB11 and HB127 — and ones that may restrict the correct to have an abortion.

One measure into account this 12 months would require ladies searching for an abortion to look at a web-based course displaying “medically-accurate” pictures of the process after which attest underneath penalty of perjury that they’ve considered the presentation from begin to end.

The laws, sponsored by Rep. Kera Birkeland, R-Morgan, would additionally require the state well being division to assemble annual information about what number of ladies skilled problems from an abortion and details about the process utilized in every case.

The invoice, HB382, has not made any progress via the Legislature to this point.

However the major cause for Friday’s gathering was HB174, a set off legislation from 2020 that may come into impact if the Supreme Court docket choice in Roe v. Wade was overturned.

“Utah’s abortion set off legislation, which the folks in these chambers handed and signed into legislation two years in the past, is a direct assault on the standard of lifetime of Utah ladies, genderqueer folks and Utah households as a complete,” speaker Dodge Hovermale stated.

They continued by demanding that the legislation be overturned and that, no matter what occurs to Roe v. Wade, Utahns be given easy accessibility to abortions.

One other speaker, Sam Loveland, instructed The Salt Lake Tribune that he questions individuals who advocate in opposition to abortions and seek advice from themselves as “pro-life” whereas doing nothing to assist working class Individuals.

“You possibly can’t be pro-life after which even have housing be so costly and have folks not with the ability to entry healthcare,” he stated. He steered that the assault on the choice of Roe v. Wade is a part of a broader systemic problem that disadvantages the working class.

The group additionally charged the state Legislature with failing to step up throughout a well being and reasonably priced housing disaster.

“Our authorities meets each single 12 months to debate — and it votes on — invoice after invoice, and but has nonetheless failed to supply us something within the midst of a pandemic, within the midst of violence, within the midst of poverty, within the midst of lack of housing and within the midst of different folks’s struggling … Abortion and all healthcare are human rights that ought to not, and won’t, be denied to the folks,” speaker Ermiya Fanaeian stated.

Employees author Bethany Rodgers contributed to this report.

“Don’t Say Gaetz” Law Protects Florida’s Kids from Matt Gaetz

TALLAHASSEE (The Borowitz Report)—A proposed legislation that may ban any constructive dialogue of Consultant Matt Gaetz in Florida’s lecture rooms is being debated within the Florida Home.

The invoice, which has been dubbed “Don’t Say Gaetz,” has been written to guard Florida’s youngsters, its advocates mentioned.

“Our high-school children are uncovered to many risks every day,” mentioned Carol Foyler, a Florida mom who helps the invoice. “Clearly, although, no hazard is bigger than Matt Gaetz.”

Underneath the provisions of the invoice, Florida high-school college students could be required to take a semester-long course “in regards to the warning indicators that they’re in proximity to Matt Gaetz, and easy methods to forestall that from ever occurring,” Foyler mentioned.

“The answer to this drawback is training,” she mentioned. “You may’t simply pray the Gaetz away.”

‘Law & Order’ reboot continues with tradition : NPR

The unique sequence, which debuted in 1990, leaned closely on present information tales. The brand new present does the identical. Its debut episode facilities on the crimes of a TV character harking back to Invoice Cosby.


That is FRESH AIR. The NBC drama sequence “Regulation & Order” premiered in 1990 and was televised till 2010, spawning a number of spinoff sequence alongside the best way. However this week, the unique “Regulation & Order” resumes after a 12-year hiatus. It is a continuation, not a reboot. Our TV critic David Bianculli has this take a look at the present’s historical past and affect, in addition to the contents of this new incarnation. This is his assessment.


DAVID BIANCULLI, BYLINE: That sound, which has signaled a transition between scenes on NBC’s “Regulation & Order” and all its many spinoffs for many years, has develop into probably the most recognizable sounds on tv. That is principally as a result of it appears to have been round perpetually, and in TV historical past phrases, it virtually has. The unique “Regulation & Order” sequence began in 1990, virtually a full decade earlier than the premiers of “The West Wing” and “The Sopranos.” Sequence creator Dick Wolf, who had labored as a producer on “Miami Vice,” launched “Regulation & Order” as a drama sequence that, in essence, was two sequence in a single. The legislation portion was a cop present, exhibiting how the police solved the crime and arrested the prime suspect. And the order half was the courtroom drama, exhibiting how the prosecutors constructed their case in opposition to the accused and argued it at trial.

The idea for “Regulation & Order” wasn’t authentic. The identical primary construction was used within the ABC drama sequence “Arrest And Trial” approach again in 1963, starring Ben Gazzara because the cop and Chuck Connors because the protection lawyer. However the thought was a superb one and allowed “Regulation & Order” over its 20 years to cycle by plenty of forged modifications with out lacking a beat. What remained fixed all through was the construction of the present, the on-location capturing in New York and the usage of accessible Broadway actors as visitor stars. If you happen to had been a stage actor in New York from 1990 to 2010 and did not have a credit score on “Regulation & Order” in your resume, you wanted a brand new agent.

When “Regulation & Order” closed down 12 years in the past, its common forged members included Anthony Anderson, later of “Black-ish,” as Detective Kevin Bernard and Sam Waterston, later of “The Newsroom,” as Assistant District Lawyer Jack McCoy. They’re each again for this 2022 model, teamed with new characters and gamers, together with Camryn Manheim. Anderson’s detective, for instance, is now paired with Frank Cosgrove, a white cop performed by Jeffrey Donovan, previously of “Burn Discover” and Season 2 of TV’s “Fargo.” Donovan’s a wonderful actor, however even he cannot promote a few of the dialogue right here, which is so clunky it is painful. The outdated “Regulation & Order” all the time had the repute of getting its crimes and points ripped from the headlines but additionally had the repute of being apparent and stilted with its dealing with of these points. The brand new “Regulation & Order” continues that custom.

This is a scene wherein Kevin and Frank strategy a younger Black man on the road to query him and tempers run so excessive that Frank is pulled away by his accomplice. Instantly afterward, Frank complains about being handled unfairly.


JEFFREY DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Are you kidding me? These younger children – they obtained no respect. They get to say and do no matter they need. It is like a free move.

ANTHONY ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) I am undecided what you imply by that.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) I imply, I am white. He is Black. I say the improper factor, and my profession is over.

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Perhaps.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Perhaps? Is there one other approach of this?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Hey, Frank, you got here at him sizzling, man.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) I confirmed him my badge, and I mentioned, the way you doing? How’s that coming off sizzling? Ought to I’ve supplied him a croissant and invited him to tea on the St. Regis?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Perhaps you need to have handled him somewhat extra well mannered, like a law-abiding citizen minding his personal rattling enterprise.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Reality is, it is these rattling telephones. They’ve ruined the whole lot.

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) OK. That is a technique of it.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) The opposite?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) They maintain us accountable.

BIANCULLI: There is a completely different form of built-in battle on the Order half of the present. Sam Waterston’s Jack McCoy has been promoted. He’s now the DA in cost, and he oversees a brand new workers of assistants, together with Hugh Dancy as Nolan Worth. And he is upset within the season premiere episode by the best way the police extract a confession from the defendant, however McCoy is just not.


SAM WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) This case is front-page information, Nolan.

HUGH DANCY: (As Nolan Worth) I get it. However with all due respect, that is not related. Whenever you requested me to come back right here, you mentioned, I want somebody who sees the world by a unique lens, somebody with the center to make laborious selections.

WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) I bear in mind. I nonetheless really feel that approach. Nevertheless it’s a authorized confession, Nolan. Cops are allowed to lie.

DANCY: (As Nolan Worth) They’re. Nevertheless it makes the confession much less dependable, much less moral.

WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) No. If it is authorized, it is moral.

BIANCULLI: The case itself, the one they’re prosecuting, is probably the most incendiary facet of this in any other case typical new model of “Regulation & Order.” The fictional case includes the homicide of a preferred celeb named Henry King, accused of drugging and raping 40 girls. It is apparent that this episode is ripped from headlines tied to Invoice Cosby. And that is noteworthy, if for no different cause, as a result of when the unique “Regulation & Order” premiered on NBC, two of the community’s prime 5 TV reveals had been from Cosby, “The Cosby Present” and “A Totally different World.” Invoice Cosby dominated NBC then and was chargeable for its reversal of fortune from third place to first. At the moment, as “Regulation & Order” returns for Season 21, Cosby is getting used as nameless inspiration for simply one other TV plot.

And this new “Regulation & Order,” make no mistake, is simply one other TV version of the identical acquainted present, one other cog in a really dependable machine. From its memorable theme music by Mike Put up to the fast tempo of it’s-just-the-facts-ma’am plot factors, this new “Regulation & Order” season is rather like all of the others. That makes it a watchable present, not a fantastic one. Nevertheless it’s nonetheless not a grievance. At a time when all the published networks are churning out extra sport and actuality reveals than scripted sequence in primetime, the return of the old style “Regulation & Order” is a step ahead, in addition to a nod backward.

GROSS: David Bianculli is a professor of tv research at Rowan College in New Jersey. “Regulation & Order” premiers tomorrow on NBC. Tomorrow on FRESH AIR, it’s possible you’ll be squeamish about bugs, however might people reside in a world with out them? Bugs play vital roles in pollinating crops we eat, breaking down waste in forest soil and forming the bottom of a meals chain for different animals. Our visitor will likely be environmental author Oliver Milman, who explores the troubling decline in insect populations in his new ebook, “The Insect Disaster.” I hope you will be part of us.


GROSS: Our technical director and engineer is Audrey Bentham, with extra engineering right now from Al Banks. Our interviews and critiques are produced and edited by Amy Salit, Phyllis Myers, Sam Briger, Lauren Krenzel, Heidi Saman, Therese Madden, Ann Marie Baldonado, Thea Chaloner, Seth Kelley and Kayla Lattimore. Our digital media producer is Molly Seavy-Nesper. I am Terry Gross.


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